We live in a time when there are many ways to send money, including mobile apps and electronic transfers directly from your bank account. For some transactions, a wire transfer might be necessary.
Wire transfers are a trusted way of sending money to another account worldwide and have existed long before anyone imagined mobile apps and electronic transfers. They are a quick and trusted way to send significant amounts of money.
This article will explore what a wire transfer is, what they are used for, how long they take, if they can be canceled, and what might delay them. Read on to become a wire transfer expert.
What Is a Wire Transfer?
Wire transfers have been around for a very long time, with the first wire transfer system launched by Western Union in 1872. In their original form, a sender paid money at one telegraph office, and the telegraph operator would transmit a message to another office using codes and passwords that would authorize the release of funds.
The use of telegraph wires to transmit the original wire transfers is the source of their name.
Wire transfers are a quick and secure way to send funds from a bank or credit union, or financial services provider anywhere in the world. Different wire transfer systems and operators provide options that vary in their immediacy, cost, volume of transactions, and the amounts allowed to send.
Typically, both the sending and receiving banks deduct a fee, one from the sender and an amount taken from the receiver's funds.
What Are Wire Transfers Used For?
Wire transfers are commonly used to send more significant amounts of money.
When larger amounts of funds are needed to pay an invoice, complete a real estate transaction, or help a family member with an emergency loan, wire transfers are a popular way to ensure the funds reach their destination quickly. They are especially effective for international funds transfers as they are an easy way to convert money to a foreign currency.
How Long Does a Wire Transfer Take?
The time it takes for a wire transfer to be received depends most on whether it is domestic or international. Other factors will include weekends,holidays, and the method of transfer . The primary considerations are:
When the Transfer Is Initiated
Federal regulations require banks to make wire transfer funds available to recipients within one business day. Still, the cut-off times observed by banks and credit unions are set by the banking institutions themselves.
For example, if you send a wire transfer after the bank's 2 pm cut-off time, the funds will be recorded as received on the next day. For example, if you send a wire transfer after the cut-off time on a Monday, it may not be completed until Wednesday, causing a delay in the transaction.
Weekends and federal holidays are another consideration to keep in mind, as transfers cannot be completed on those days.
Where the Funds Are Being Sent or Received
While domestic transfers happen in one to three days, depending on the bank cut-off time, international transfers have additional considerations and tend to take longer. Transferring from a U.S.-based account to an overseas account can take one to five business days.
The wire transfer time to an international account depends on time zones, banking systems, and foreign currencies. Some countries designated as slow-to-pay might delay transactions for as long as three weeks or potentially result in the transfer's cancellation.
The Bank Transfer Method
Wire transfer systems offered by central banks, such as the Federal Reserve Bank's Fedwire system in the U.S., are typically real-time gross settlement (RTGS) systems that provide the quickest funds availability. These systems are often used in cases of sending large amounts of money, and when faster settlement times are crucial.
Other systems, like the Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS), are typically slower than central bank systems but cost less and are used when currency fluctuations are not a considerable concern.
When funds are sent overseas, the method most used is SWIFT, which stands for Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, the network's manager. While CHIPS may also be used to send money internationally, SWIFT is used when money can't be processed directly through banks and must go through an intermediary.
Can You Cancel a Wire Transfer?
Once a wire transfer is initiated, it is a guaranteed funds transfer that can only be stopped if the receiving bank receives a cancellation notice from the sending bank before the completion of the transfer is processed.
If the banks make a mistake like sending an order twice or the wrong amount, they can adjust or reverse the wire transfer.
What Can Delay a Wire Transfer
Just missing the bank cut-off time by a few minutes could delay the transfer by up to two days. If a weekend or holiday falls in that period, additional time is added to the transfer time.
Other countries have their own national holidays, and some recognize different days as their weekends. Sending an international transfer will be subject to the other county's weekends and holidays, just as it would in the U.S.
Time zones also have an impact. If a transfer is initiated on the U.S. west coast destined for a bank on the east coast, the three-hour time difference could be an issue, especially if the receiving bank has an earlier cut-off time.
Errors are another cause of delays. If the recipient's information is input incorrectly, such as missing a number of the recipient's account or a misspelling, the result could be a delay or even cancellation. If the amount input is mistaken and larger than what is in the sender's account, the transaction will not clear.
Finally, SWIFT international transfers that must go through intermediary banks are subject to the intermediates' time frames, which could result in a delay.
Wire Transfers Include Many Considerations
Sending a wire transfer requires consideration of costs, time frames, where the funds are sent, and holidays and weekends. While many things can happen that would delay the transaction, wire transfers are still the predominant way to send significant amounts of money.